History of Kyrgyzstan

Introduction
We would like to introduce you the history of Kyrgyzstan and provide additional introduction about its appearance in your tours in Kyrgyzstan. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will get know how interesting the historical events of the country. It is known that, nomads preferred living in small dwellings - yurts and never built big houses. They think that, it is better not to destroy the nature by big buildings. During your tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told that, Kyrgyz never used written sources because they liked oral conversations. In general, Kyrgyz people are known for almost 2000 years, where the first ethnonym of the word "Kyrgyz" was mentioned in 201 BC. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan, you may hear many interesting stories from Kyrgyz history.

Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC)
In the course of your tours in Kyrgyzstan, you will be informed about Kyrgyz prehistory which made a huge contribution to the development of culture and art. If you want to see it, you may visit Cholpon Ata and get impression of the Rock Art Gallery. In the period of Bronze Age, this place was a spiritual center for people who used to spend their seasonal holidays. During your tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will find 2000 images carved on stones and rocks as well as petroglyphs like different images of animals as goats, bulls, horses, deers, camels, dogs and other anthropomorphic creatures. You can also notice pictures of hunting, plowing, ritual dancing, animals with carts, labyrinths even erotic and other scenes. These kinds of images are used to be a part of everyday life of ancient people.

Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD)
You have already heard that, the first ethnonym of "Kyrgyz" goes back to 201 BC. In the course of your tours in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told that, there was a one Chinese historian, his name was Sima Tan, who first wrote in the chronicle "Historical notes" that, Kyrgyz and five peoples were conquered by the Hunnu. Another Chinese historian Ban Gu in his chronicle Han-shu (History of Han) mentioned the appearance of Kyrgyz in the 1st century BC. Actually, all descriptions of Kyrgyz appearance were basically mentioned in Chinese notes as well as in the area of Eastern Turkestan which say that the ancient Kyrgyz were found in the 1st century BC and placed in the east from the territory of present Kyrgyzstan. So, you can see how rich the historical events of Kyrgyzstan.

Turkic Era (500-1200)
When you travel in Kyrgyzstan, you will have a chance to know some significant events in the period of Turkic Era. It is the era of the early Middle Ages which started from the 6th to the 13th centuries and formed the Turkic era in the history of Kyrgyzstan as well as in Central Asia by moving the Turkic-speaking tribes from the Altai Mountains to the Central Asian region. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told that, the first Turkic dynasties are as well as states formed. But still, there were not any records in the first six centuries AD of Kyrgyz people. Furthermore, in the 7th century, they finally formed the Kyrgyz Kaganate on the middle Yenisei River and South Siberia, where the ruler was Barsbek ajo-king. Over the time, the Yenisei Kyrgyz created the state in 9th and 10th centuries along the Irtysh River in the west to the Big Khingan range in the east, from the Angara and Selenga Rivers in the north to the Gobi Desert in the south. It was period of development the Great Kyrgyz Empire by Russian and Soviet historian Barthold.

The Mongol Rule (1200-1400)
The history of Kyrgyzstan is marked a tragic page due to the Mongol Rule in 13th century. This period of time was a big destructive Mongol invasion, where the ruler of Mongol army was Genghis Khan. He was first who dominated the territory of Central Asia and devastated and later the industrialized the Turkic culture. After sometime, the Yenisei Kyrgyz joined to the army of Genghiz Khan in 1207, where the creator ruled for several hundred years. 

Over the time, Kyrgyz people start following Islam religion in the 12th and 15th centuries due to the religion of numerous Persian, Arab and Turkic traders who migrated along the Silk Road. It marked time of developing Kyrgyz state and shamanistic traditions among the Kyrgyzs, which brought up a huge contribution of improving the state.

Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800)
Establishment of Kyrgyz consolidation happened in 15th century, where Kyrgyz people migrated from South Siberia to the territory of present Kyrgyzstan. Still, there was no reaming of Kyrgyz statehood in 15-19th centuries. It was period of wars, where Kyrgyz people struggled to form the Kyrgyz statehood. But, they didn't succeed and formed -political system of two wings and center which contained many independent tribes as in the ancient Greek city-states and longed for four centuries.

Russian Colonization (1770-1917)
In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told about Russian Colonization which marked a significant role in the country. In this period of time, Russian dynasty suggested northern Kyrgyz leaders to join Russia under the point of protecting them from external and internal threats of China, Koqand and Kazakhs. Kyrgyz people were treated well by Russian colony.  Russians also wanted the southern Kyrgyzstan to join them, but unfortunately, they were taken by force in the result of colonization policy and military campaigns of the Russian Empire. After joining to Russian Colonization, Kyrgyz state established a new administrative-territorial system and developed its nomadic lifestyle which led to improvement of agricultural economy and society.

Soviet Rule (1917-1991)
Soviet rule formed in the period of Bolsheviks appearance in 1917. They were first who opened a new history of Kyrgyzstan. Travelling in Kyrgyzstan will let you know that, this period of time; Kyrgyz people were supported and protected by the government. They were free to vote and live peacefully. It was time of prospering the political, economic and cultural development of Kyrgyzstan. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be impressed by the elimination of illiteracy and the creation of the system of elementary, secondary and higher education, the development of professional literature, theatre, painting, cinema, science and the establishment of a large-scale heavy metal processing industry as well as machinery in Soviet time. The development and improvement of Kyrgyz state established due to the policy of Bolsheviks, which brought up a great contribution to the country.   

Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991)
After destruction of Soviet Union, the Independent Kyrgyzstan came to the power. This period of time brought up the attributes as national flag, emblem and anthem. Finally, the first Constitution of Kyrgyzstan was held in 1993 and Kyrgyzstan became a part of UN on 2nd of March 1992. Unfortunately, the prosperity of Kyrgyzstan gone and country faced with mass-scale unemployment. After getting independence, Kyrgyzstan suffered a deep political, economic and social crisis and Kyrgyzstan lost the "island of democracy" and reached the "island of instability" in Central Asia. There were revolutions of overthrow of two presidents in 2005 and 2010. Over the time, Kyrgyzstan finally stabilized the political, social and economic development and formed a parliamentary system by a new president which was elected in 2017 by people.