Good old days of Kyrgyzstan
After travelling we have in mind some facts from history. Here we would like to share shortly history of Kyrgyzstan. History plays big role and we are ready to share you interesting facts. The first reliable traces of humans on the territory of Kyrgyzstan belong to the Paleolithic-the ancient stone age (800-100 thousand years BC). The very first extant mention of the Kyrgyz is found in Chinese historical writings and dates back to 201 BC.
Primitive man inhabits the territory. Kyrgyzstan in the Paleolithic era. The oldest site Is on Archa with an age of 800 thousand years. In General, the development of Kyrgyzstan in the bronze age (from the third Millennium BC to the IX-VIII centuries BC) is characterized by the active development of metal, the growth of pastoral and agricultural economy, the allocation of the first nomadic pastoralists by the property and social stratification of people into nobles and ordinary communities. Representatives of this time had a Caucasian appearance and spoke one of the Eastern Iranian languages. You can communicate with locals while having tours and ask them.
Then the usuni appeared. From the second half of the second century BC, the wusun were drawn into the sphere of big politics of the Han Empire. In the Ferghana valley, as early as the first Millennium BC, a state with a developed sedentary agricultural culture emerged. In the Chinese Chronicles, the ancient Afghan state is called Davan. The state was ruled by a dynasty of local kings. In the 3rd century was formed (from China to oz. Baikal) a powerful tribal Union led by the Turkic-speaking Huns, whose leader was in 209 BC - Khan Maodong (mode) - a decisive and far-sighted politician.
In the middle of the VI century, the first Turkic state was formed in Central Asia - the Turkic Khaganate (from 552 to 744).
The Great Silk Road was an international land trade route that crossed almost all of Asia from East to West. Its total length is about seven thousand kilometers or three years of travel. Trade was conducted in a wide variety of goods, but the main one was silk, which was very valued in the countries of the West. This product gave the name of the trade route. All this you can see and feel the atmosphere of antiquity with your own eyes. Our company also provides car rent services. This will make your tours much easier and will not allow you to think about complex transport.
On the Tien Shan in the 10th-12th centuries, the EC reached its peak. power and cult. the heyday of the Karakhanid khanate. (Afrasiab dynasty) the First Karakhanids conquered most of East Turkestan, the Center. T-sh, 7 rechye and Ferghana. The capital of the Kagan was the city of Balasagyn (near Burana).
At the end of the seventh century, when the Second Turkic Khaganate was formed, the anti-Turkic forces were led by the Kyrgyz state, which was ruled by ajo bars-beg. On the conquered lands of Central Asia in the 60s of the XIII century. with the center in the Tien Shan, an independent state emerged, the ruler of which was haidu - the great-grandson of Genghis Khan. In 1269, the Kurultai of the Mongol princes gathered on the Talas river declared the new state's complete independence from Mongolia. The state of haidu included the lands of the former uluses of Ogedei and Chagatai, covering the territory from the Altai to the Amu Darya, including East Turkestan. Bet on x. In the Chui valley, and his son Shah in the Tal valley. Haidu tried to rebuild cities and revive the caravan trade, strengthened the borders of the state, and did not lead wars of conquest. The successful implementation of monetary reform contributed to the growth of the state's economic well-being. Haidu organized regular minting of silver coins of the same sample and weight throughout the state. Cities and villages destroyed by the Mongol conquerors in the settled agricultural regions were quickly revived: Sogd, Khorezm, Ferghana. Northern Kyrgyzstan was hardly affected by this process. Haidu gave a decisive rebuff to attacks, led a skillful diplomatic game, supported separatist movements in the hostile camp. He died in 1301. An important stage in the formation of the Kyrgyz nation was the unification of all tribes in 2 "wings" - the traditional Association of all Turkic nomads, starting with the Huns. The right wing (Ong Kanat) included such large tribes as sarybagysh, bugu, Sayak, Solto, zhediger, tynymseit, mongoldor, Bagysh, baaryn, cherik, zhoru, etc., living mainly in the Western and Central Tien Shan. The left wing (Sol Kanat) included the tribes of kushchu, Saru, Munduz, Zhetigen, kytai, etc. the third group of South Kyrgyz tribes, called "ichkilik", included the tribes of adygen, Kipchak, Naiman, teyit, kesek, etc. All three associations included both Kyrgyz and Mongolian tribes on an equal basis. All the tribes that entered the new administrative and military system were referred to by the common ethnonym "Kyrgyz". This important act in the history of the Tien Shan occurred at the end of the XV-beginning of the XVI century. Perhaps, from this time we can talk about the completion of the main process of formation of the Kyrgyz nation on the Tien Shan. For the people of Kyrgyzstan joining Russia was an event of great historical importance for the trial in the 50-70-ies of the XIX century was difficult, sometimes dramatic, but in the end had a positive significance for the history of Kyrgyz people noted above, even in the last quarter of the XVIII century on the initiative of beating the Attack from saryagashsky Kyrgyz Chui valley in Saint Petersburg by Catherine II sent an Embassy in search of patronage. In the first third of the nineteenth century, faced with the immediate threat of Kokand aggression, the Kyrgyz made repeated attempts to enlist the protection of Russia. But the Kokand khanate turned out to be more operational, and the Kyrgyz were forced to temporarily submit to force. To submit, but not to be reconciled to the Khan's oppression. With the change in the political situation in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in the beginning. In the 19th century, there were objective opportunities to satisfy the long-standing desire of the Kyrgyz people to accept Russian citizenship. In September 1853, the Issyk-e Kyrgyz once again sent a letter to the Governor-General of Western Siberia. The initiator of this appeal was the Supreme Manap of the Bugu Bekmurat tribe. From St. Petersburg, the order was given to invite Kyrgyz representatives to Omsk and to satisfy their request by the solemn oath of the Kyrgyz to the Russian Emperor. This was an act of great political significance. For the first time, the accession of the Kyrgyz Bugu tribe to Russia was proclaimed in the form of a written oath. This was one of the few historical acts of acceptance of Russian citizenship by a part of the Kyrgyz people. Soon the Kyrgyz, who were nomadic in the Central Tien Shan, also expressed a desire to accept citizenship. The tribe CERIC oath of allegiance to Russia almost copied the oath of Buhintsev, which brought Kajibek Seralin. and they also took it in October 1863 in the presence of high officials of Siberia, who signed the oath together with the Kyrgyz biys. With the establishment of the post-Russian military garrison in the Issyk-Kul Region in 1863, the encroachments of the Kokand and Chinese on the lands of the Kyrgyz stopped. In 1862, as a result of joint actions of Russian troops and detachments of Kyrgyz rebels, the main stronghold of Kokand-their conqueror in the Chui valley - the fortress of Bishkek-soon fell. Tokmak fortress was taken by the dzhigits of sarybagysh Manap sh. Dzhantaeva. the Chui valley was annexed to Russia. 5 thousand families of the Solto tribe accepted Russian citizenship. next, was taken Merke, Aulie-ATA, Chimkent, etc. In 1862, some of the sarybagysh who occupied the lands of Kemin applied for Russian citizenship. Kyrgyz, kochev-ie in the Central Tien Shan. In 1864 adopted a Russian citizenship born sakov Ketmen-Tyube basin of the Tian Shan.In 1864 to take the citizenship expressed a desire for the nomads of the Ketmen-Tyube depression of the Tien Shan. The Sayak family of 10 thousand families, headed by Manap Narbotoev, accepted Russian citizenship, But it would be wrong to say that the entire population of Northern Kyrgyzstan expressed a desire for voluntary Russian citizenship. Yes, and the very concept of "voluntary"; you can only accept conditionally-no people voluntarily.- will not put on the yoke And the colonial tax policy of tsardom soon proved that it is, indeed, a new yoke. But then the Kyrgyz people had no other way out, they needed a forced and timely measure. Kyrgyz nation got independence only in 1991. Then there were 2 revolutions. Our guide will tell you more in every single location. It is really impressing. Our tours are nor just tours, it is a informative baggage of historical facts. Moreover, if you rent a car, you will not distract from significant moments.